Tag Archives: Comedy

Happy Death Day: Stupid, Harmless, Spooky Fun


If you ever wanted to see the bastard love-child of Groundhog Day and Scream, with just a little bit of Mean Girls sprinkled in, Happy Death Day is the movie for you!

…Wait, you didn’t want to see that?

…Um, well…here it is anyway! And boy howdy, is it fun! It’s got romance, suspense, mystery, horror, comedy; a little bit of everything!

The film makes a quick reference to Groundhog Day at the end, saving it from being just a shameless rip-off. I’d probably still call it that; after all, just because you lampshade something doesn’t mean the problem goes away. But at least it knows what it is and what its limitations are, which is more than I can say for most Hollywood remakes and “reimaginings” nowadays. I’d also like to point out that Groundhog Day itself is basically just a variation of A Christmas Carol, just without the ghosts and Christmas, so it’s all relative.

If you can accept all of that, Happy Death Day is a goofy, hilarious, brainless romp, filled with some genuine creepiness, but just as much with morbidly dark comedy. That title alone should tell you how seriously the filmmakers take themselves, and yet the story is genuinely thrilling and dramatic at times, as well as oddly satisfying at the very end.


Theresa Gelbman, nicknamed “Tree,” is a stereotypical b&$#@y sorority girl living with a bunch of other shallow, vapid girls. The only exceptions to that rule appear to be the newer members of the house, the one “fat” chick, and the medical intern who somehow gets away with never wearing any makeup. Regina George would, like, totally not approve.

As the story progresses, we learn that Tree wasn’t always this trashy and horrible, but fell into bad habits and self-pity after the death of her mother, with whom she shares a birthday. On this particular birthday, she gets attacked and killed on the way to her surprise party, only to wake up in the dorm she found herself in that very morning. The day appears to be repeating itself, resetting only when Tree is killed, and after some initial panic and anger, she gets the idea to try and solve her own murder mystery. Seeing as she seems to have an infinite number of tries, why not?

Unlike with Bill Murray, however, we start to see that her various murders are affecting Tree physically, even after the day resets. A knife to the gut will throb, ache, or weaken her completely, leading her to wonder if she truly has infinite attempts after all.


I don’t know why the school chose babies to be its mascot, except with the intent to make an overtly, stupidly creepy mask just for this occasion, but like I said, don’t think about that. Think about who is killing Tree and why, because the payoff is pretty good. There is a bit of misdirection involved that some people may spot right away, but for fear of spoiling the fun, I won’t say anymore.

The gore is minimal to non-existent, with plenty of flipped shots and quick cutaways, and the tone tends towards comedic most of the time. Even if horror and suspense aren’t your cup of tea, I can’t imagine most people being serious bothered by it here. You can only take it so seriously, especially when the movie breaks into a montage of Tree stalking and confronting possible killer suspects. She’ll die, then wake up the next morning with some kind of “drat!” reaction, so however painful the murder must be, she starts taking it like a pesky mosquito bite for a little bit. What’s so scary about that?


The only thing that really bothered me during the watch was wondering how the killer managed to track her everywhere she ends up during the night, especially during said montage. Is Tree constantly posting about it on social media? I wouldn’t exactly put it past her, and that might answer my question pretty neatly, but the film never tells you exactly how, so who knows? Maybe she was microchipped as a baby, or the Baby-faced killer can magically teleport to her location. It’s so silly that it’s almost impossible to really care.

One last thing…as someone who hates the long logo rolls at the start of movies, having the Universal logo skipping and repeating a few times is a living nightmare. Please Universal, never do that again.



*None of the clips, images, or audio in this post belong to me, minus the title card.

Bridesmaids, and The Great Formula Still Being Ripped Off Today



I was talking with my dad the other day about how I can’t stand Pitch Perfect, and how it’s basically the result of diet Bridesmaids having an illegitimate lovechild with Glee, and it got me thinking. I haven’t really talked about Bridesmaids much, and it definitely deserves to be talked about.

For quite a while, we have seen stupid movies loaded with gross out, scenes straight out of Jackass, and humor that is mostly based around shock, horror, awkwardness, and the above-mentioned gross out. I believe that a lot of that formula (in its modern form) comes from the success of Borat, which was a film about a walking stereotype trekking across America and offending everyone with his ways and beliefs.

So many variations have come out since then, usually with a simpler plot and varying levels of shock and toilet humor.

It’s no secret that these movies have men as their target audience. Not all men, mind you, but particularly those who have not mentally aged past about 14 years old. Women, even immature ones, just aren’t as amused by basic bodily functions and shocking things that are just there to shock for no reason.

It is perhaps not much of a stretch to assume that such “young” men that would enjoy these “comedies” would cringe if asked to watch a movie aimed at women, or even just starring a female character. Not necessarily because they are inherently smarter films (some chick flicks can be equally brainless), but because feminine is the opposite of masculine, and anything that is not masculine to these types of guys usually equals bad right off the bat.

Funny and “the feels” don’t mix.



Hollywood’s response (in 2011): Bridesmaids.

It still has a story that women can enjoy and identify with, but it isn’t afraid to be gross and dirty and even downright unpleasant. And plenty of women like that about it.

Spoilers Below.



Bridesmaids is a story about Annie Walker (Kristen Wiig), a single, insecure, down-on-her-luck jewelry sales clerk in her mid to late 30’s who is in one-sided, no-strings-attached relationship with a self-absorbed man-child named Ted (Jon Hamm, who also starred in all three Hangover movies). Her best friend Lillian (Maya Rudolph) gets engaged to her long-time boyfriend Dougie (Tim Heidecker) and makes Annie her Maid of Honor, which leads to Annie struggling to plan events for Lillian and the rest of the bridesmaids.

It’s particularly hard to make new friends and be happy for your friend when you are butting heads with a fellow bridesmaid like Helen (Rose Byrne), who is constantly vying for your best friend’s attention and friendship.

Hijinx and cat fights ensue. One thing after another goes horribly wrong, but also keeps to a decently realistic scenario.

The humor is very similar to that of The Hangover, but with a feminine touch. After lunch at a shady restaurant, the girls go dress shopping and come down with horrible cases of food poisoning. The sex scene, and pretty much all subsequent scenes, with Ted is punctuated by the lack of music, the awkward silence only broken by Annie’s equally awkward comments and exasperated side quips. The lavish bridal shower is filled with tension, which finally breaks with shouting and destruction of a ridiculously large cookie. It’s all silly and requires a bit of suspension of disbelief, but it’s relatable enough that you laugh or cringe or both and let the moments pass.



Dougie, the husband–to-be, is not even a character. We only hear about him secondhand for most of the movie, and we see him in maybe two scenes in person. He is practically a background decoration, especially compared to the other two men who appear frequently in the movie, Ted and Rhodes (Chris O’Dowd), who at the very least get lines.

The major characters are all women, and while some of them are more developed than others (Rita is a single mom looking for excitement, and Becca is a sheltered newlywed. Both women struggle to find passion and happiness in their lives, though their subplots never really get resolved), there is plenty of growth in just Annie herself over the course of the film to make up for it.

Also, I must point out that Becca is played by Ellie Kemper, was also on The Office (US) and Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt. She is always delightful to watch.



Interestingly, Rebel Wilson and Melissa McCarthy both appear in this movie, although there aren’t many jokes made about either woman’s weight (thankfully). They started the whole trend of “sassy overweight woman who is happy with herself and says outrageous things” that have appeared in countless movies since (usually ones that star either one or the other aforementioned women), but Megan (McCarthy) pulls it off not just tolerably, but she does great with it. The best of all of these usually hollow (and, in my opinion, disingenuous) character types.

Her performance is funny, sure, but it is somewhat downplayed, and her character also has a greater point toward the end of the movie than just saying ridiculous things or being overweight. She actually helps Annie come to terms with her own problems and gets her to stop feeling sorry for herself. Plus, she rose above her own bullies and became relatively wealthy and successful by her own merits, which makes her even more admirable.



Having something to overcome, even just in your unseen back story, makes confident characters even more real and likable.



Helen is fun to hate, as I’m sure that many women in particular have known other women like her. She’s beautiful, rich, successful, and well-liked (to an outsider looking in); she hides her dismissiveness and insults in sugared words and smiles; and she may or may not be trying to lure your best friend away from you. Even though Annie isn’t very subtle or tactful dealing with her, and both women are pretty evenly pathetic in the long run, we can understand with Annie’s near-immediate dislike of her and even empathize a little bit.

From the lens of an adult who grew from an awkward, bullied, less confident girl, Annie’s story feels real to me, in a way that any of the Pitch Perfect girls’ did not. Most of them have one or two character traits that they rattle off like an answering machine whenever the film needs a laugh, which, to me, doesn’t count as good female representation (or Fat or LGBTQ representation, for that matter). Beca’s (Pitch Perfect Beca, not Bridesmaids Becca) one note is that she’s too cool for school, and Chloe is a staunch traditionalist control freak.

They might as well be the seven dwarves for all I care. Funny, but not real people.

My biggest issue with Pitch Perfect is the disingenuous feeling I get from it. It’s just another Mean Girls, shrouded in a cloud of pretense. If you like it as mindless entertainment, fine. But to all you ladies out there talking about how feminist, progressive, and witty it is… why?

Even the cover is ripping off Bridesmaids.



But wow, do I digress!

Annie wrestles with disappointing relationships, losing touch with the kids these days (in a world that increasingly values youth and beauty), lackluster living situations (from living with two weird siblings who read her diary to moving back in with her mother), crumbling career and business goals (her bakery goes under at the same time that her boyfriend leaves her, forcing her to give up on her dream and scare her away from baking, even just for fun), and the slow, but sure progression of age in general.
Whether you like her or not, she is a fully fleshed-out character. Her flaws make her more compelling, even if they also make you cringe.

Her life seems like it’s out of her control, and it doesn’t help that she is insecure and passive-aggressive when dealing with the harsh realities of it.



Annie even begins seeing a cop at one point, but her stress and feelings of self-pity and loathing nearly sabotage one of the few good relationships that she has going for her. It’s not really a “third-act misunderstanding,” like the ones I have bemoaned in the past; she makes a few good points when she snaps at them, but ultimately, she distances herself from both Lillian and Officer Rhodes with unreasonable, self-destructive behavior.

If you don’t like her, or just don’t understand her character, think of it this way: a woman is seeing her best friend and the only constant, stable source of joy in her life getting married. She has to cope with losing her friend on multiple levels; Lillian is about to permanently become part of a couple, and another woman, who Lillian will probably get to see more often (as she is the wife of Lillian’s husband’s boss), is moving in on her territory. By trying to hold her position as Lillian’s best friend, as well as trying to outshine Helen, she makes things worse for herself and gets everyone pissed off at her.

She is definitely self-centered. It’s not good to be feeling so jealous, bitter, sad, and outright angry at what should be a happy time for her best friend, but it’s pretty understandable when cast in that light. Annie causes most of her own problems and blames them on the rest of the world, but as Megan eventually points out to her, “you are your problem. You are also your solution.”

A realistic struggle, and a positive, self-affirming message. What’s not to love about that?



Bridesmaids has its share of sad and depression moments, particularly on repeated viewings, but as far as comedies go, it’s surprisingly deep as well as funny. It conveys a very human experience, albeit in a silly, hyperbolic way at times. I think that a lot of people, not just women, can relate to it.

And really, what is comedy for, if not to shine a spotlight on the unfairness and absurdity of life; giving us things to laugh about, even in our darkest moments?

The movie does end with some realistic triumph. Lillian still gets married, but Annie makes peace (and tentative friends) with Helen, reconciles with her best friend, and even continues her relationship with Officer Rhodes. While Rhodes might help that process along, she doesn’t end the film marrying him. She has to fix her own life, much like how she finally replaces the broken tail lights on her car.



That is why I think that Bridesmaids is so great, despite its occasionally depressing moments and gross out. I’ll even go so far as to say that the gross out adds nicely to the realism, and hey, if it makes it easier for guys to get through the movie, that’s not so bad. It still won’t appeal to people who dislike seriousness or grossness in comedies, but that’s okay. It’s a great movie, but it doesn’t have to be for everyone.

I just wanted to say that…

…Oh, and that Pitch Perfect sucks!

giphy mic drop



*All pictures, video clips, and other media belong to their respective owners. None of the images or sounds belong to me.

For the record, I did sort of like Pitch Perfect 2, mostly because it was a bit less cliche and a lot less tedious. 

Two Titles: “Let’s Be Cops” and “What If”


Every once in a while, my boyfriend and I find ourselves together on a do-nothing day. Rain or shine, a good way to kill it is to go see a movie, and if we’re lucky, there will be a couple of films out that we are interested in. And if we are extra lucky (or unlucky, depending on how you look at it), there isn’t anything else cheaper or more interesting going on.

This time, we saw Let’s Be Cops and What If (or, if it pleases you, The F Word), totally expecting to hate the former and at the very least like the latter. After all, Daniel Radcliffe is awesome, and he’s in an indie-esque romcom. I wanted to see if I could see him as anyone besides Harry Potter (an issue which, for the record, I didn’t face with Emma Watson post Hermione).

For Let’s Be Cops, I was expecting a spiritual sister of Identity Thief, a film which I viscerally detest with the white-hot intensity of a thousand suns (see my list of most loathed romcom clichés and a potential future rant).

Surprisingly, I find more to talk about in Let’s Be Cops, and I’ll explain why.

The Plot(s)

As usual, spoilers ahoy.

Let’s Be Cops is a movie about two best friends (a self-identified loser and a barely self-aware, out-of-touch-with-reality loser) who are down on their luck and unsatisfied with their lots in life.

Their solution: “Let’s be cops!”


…Okay, okay. This idea didn’t come from nowhere. Loser # 1 above (named Justin, though I forgot both characters names until the last third of the film) tries to pitch a video game idea about being a police officer to his jerky boss, who ignores him because Justin is a meek pushover and doesn’t sell the danger, realism, or fun of the game he wants to make.

His friend Ryan, or Loser #2, is an old, washed up football player who injured himself not in a game, but due to his own stupidity at a party. He is man-childish, and (in my personal opinion) an unlikeable, morally reprehensible idiot.

The two friends made a pact that if they hadn’t “made it big” by the time they hit 30, they’d leave big city LA and go back to small-town Ohio.


Somehow, Justin managed to get real police uniforms and badges for his pitch, and upon confusing a masquerade party for a goofy, Halloween costume party, the two don the uniforms, show up, are sometimes regarded as real cops or their usual washout selves (very inconsistently, I’d like to add), leave dejected, and slowly discover on the street heading home that their “costumes” give them power and attention from chicks (with much contrivance and ham-fistedness).

Thus the solution: “Let’s be cops!”

“Hilarity” ensues in very over-the-top, The Hangover-esque, “haha boobs and farts” ways, while suspension of disbelief is chucked out the window right at the get-go. Then, later, there is a jarring shift in focus to realism; what police officers actually do and face on a frequent basis, and the broken glamour for the “protagonists,” who “grow” accordingly.

If you detect massive amounts of sarcasm in the above passage, don’t adjust your screen. You are correct.

Now for What If (with considerably fewer spoilers):

Daniel Radcliffe plays Wallace, a disenchanted med school drop out who is hung up on the abrupt and painful ending of his last relationship. He lives in the attic of his single-mom sister’s house, has a few good but oddball friends, and one night, he meets a girl named Chantry at a party he gets dragged along to by his friend Allan.

Chantry is Allan’s cousin, and works as an animator with great potential for growth. The two forge an immediate bond and become the best of friends, despite their individual hang-ups and Chantry’s already “in a relationship” status. As time goes on, Wallace feels more and more attraction to her, and suspects that she feels the same.

This really is a movie you should see to know the rest. It deals with love, friendship, unfaithfulness, and the trials of life and relationships.

Impressions, Opinions, and Conundrums

Let me start here with What If, as it is shorter and easier to pinpoint what I like and don’t like about it.


The movie is very quirky and heartfelt; human. It’s not perfect (as a romcom or general story), but the people and their reactions to situations feel real. There are the dreaded “third act misunderstandings” that occur, and yes, if the characters sat down and talked them out calmly, they probably wouldn’t have happened. But at the same time, I could understand where characters were coming from, based on their present feelings and past situations. The conflicts felt more justified, and (spoiler here) the film did a great job of not putting Wallace or Chantry unfairly or overly “in the wrong.” After all, they got where they were as friends, as well as individuals, and what a lot of movies (and people) don’t seem to get is that misunderstandings are a two-way street. Wallace and Chantry do attempt to talk things out, even if it doesn’t go as smoothly as hoped.

Even when I disagreed with one character’s response to situations, I still found them understandable, if not decently relatable. For once, I wasn’t distracted or caught up by how stupid a situation or the characters were.

My only real complaint is that the main friends of Wallace and Chantry overstep their boundaries at one point later in the film, with no real impetus to do so, and seemed to think it would go well. But they were shown to be regretful for what they had caused and, while looking more flawed than before, were still funny and relatively likable.


The characters are all flawed in various ways, but they feel like real people I would know. Weird, but nice, quirky, and dependable. Their small talk is goofy and awkward and even downright gross at times, but that never bothered me (again, I know a bunch of weird people).

The friendship and subsequent romance progressed well, torturing the characters appropriately while giving believable reasons as to why they wouldn’t just come out and shout their feelings on the rooftops. The comedy was very spot on. I also like that though the characters have opportunities to “cheat,” the writers didn’t make them just give in. Even when they came close to, say, kissing, Wallace and Chantry were clearly thinking about things and holding back.

It’s good to see passion doesn’t always make people act like they have brain-damage.

I like that the boyfriend/other man in this scenario, Ben, is not a jerk or conveniently dumpable third point of the love triangle (a la several Meg Ryan movies). Also, Daniel Radcliffe does a great job. I’m sad to say that his voice and accent made me kind of squint to see his new character at first, rather than Harry, but after a while, it felt more natural and different. And my boyfriend wasn’t distracted at all, so there’s that. I’m a weirdo, perhaps like those friends I mention 🙂

But yes, I like this movie a lot. It’s well acted, well written, and well shot. Everyone has believable chemistry. That’s about as thorough as I can get without spoiling major things. It’s not the industry-changing sort of good, but it does feel quite a bit smarter and less scripted than most romcom faire. Definitely worth a watch.

Now Let’s Be Cops, on the other hand…I’d recommend you go see it, but for a totally different reason.

Holy hell, what a train wreck.

This is a bad comedy. Not a “so bad it’s good” comedy, not black comedy, and certainly not “anti-humor” comedy. It almost makes you feel bad, because it’s clearly trying its damnedest and failing. Like a class clown that’s taken too many footballs to the head.

Precisely one joke made me laugh, and after the movie was over, I couldn’t remember for the life of me what it was. I think it was semi-subtle and had to do with tone, but that’s all. The rest of the jokes mainly fell into two categories: voluptuous women throwing themselves at men,


and dumb and abusive displays of power,


both usually for no real reason at all. Also, obligatory male nakedness.

Funny, if you’re a guy under the age of twelve, maybe.

It’s almost fascinating in how much this movie utterly fails. Fails at comedy, fails at realism, and even fails at the basics of good storytelling. I felt every agonizing minute of this damn thing; only getting invested (and cheering a bit) when the main characters were getting shot at.

If I’d had a watch, I’d have checked it. Repeatedly.

But how insulting and offensive is this thing, really?

Here’s the thing: bad people can be funny. They can also be relatable or likable, if done correctly. The keys to black comedy (or portraying morally grey characters, more specifically), for me, are: how are the characters’ personalities and actions framed, and do they receive sufficient rewards or consequences?

Those are the big issues I take with Identity Thief, which, again, I will elaborate on in the future.

You could make a story about impersonating a police officer funny; maybe even awesomely funny, if it was a short scene or well-written subplot. I’m not sure it could support a full movie in the first place, but we already have buddy cop movies for most comedic possibilities, and risks must be taken sometimes to give us stuff that’s new and interesting.

If not for the last third of the movie, I would be insulted by the over-glamourization of police life and the sheer ignorance of the struggles they face everyday trying to protect people, hyped up on display. Especially when both losers (Ryan in particular) are frequently more despicable than likable. Though Let’s Be Cops doesn’t really frame Ryan or Justin as being in the right, it does emphasize that they have fun, and don’t get caught, at the expense of others. And they clearly don’t think much about what they’re doing.

If not for the later thirds, I’d argue that Ryan, at least, has borderline psychopathy.

But then the movie goes from being stupid and padded to showing more realistic things, like a brief scene of policemen doing paperwork and more scenes of them and the losers getting shot at.


Even if the film is trying to go for some kind of message or big lesson the characters learn in the end, it’s jarring and makes no sense with how little suspension of disbelief is left intact by that point.

Let’s take account of a few things here:

Okay, so they show some cops filling out paperwork and talking about it, but when the characters check out a bunch of equipment to monitor a crime lord (which they don’t have a warrant for, so their evidence should be disregarded), how the hell did they get the numbers to clear that stuff?


That’d be a lot of forms with information they cannot possibly have or pull out of their asses, to take home that high-tech gear.

For that matter, how did they get real uniforms? How did two cops pulling guns (real or not) out at each other in a restaurant not warrant a report?



Some people did scream and duck, but afterwards just said, “Well, okay. It’s just cops business, I guess.”

How about when they told people on the sidewalk to freeze without any warrant? How were they driving around in a police car they got online with weird plates and never got noticed (except one point for contrivance alone)? How Ryan could drive on sidewalks or through a football field and never get noticed by or reported to a real officer?

The writers only did half of their damn research.

My biggest question comes halfway through the film, when Justin googles “impersonating an officer” and the subsequent punishments…

…Good on them for figuring that out, I guess, presumably weeks after they’ve been faffing about outside of work in police uniforms. But seriously, they only thought to look this up now? Justin, in particular, who is portrayed as the meek, semi-intelligent, goody-two-shoes of the two, who was apprehensive from the start, is just now looking up what he’s in for?

I don’t buy any of it! Not a single bit! And that might have been okay IF IT WAS FUNNY!

There is a “third act misunderstanding/liar revealed” in this story too (with Justin’s love interest), but it’s glossed over so quickly that I was kind of grateful.

But then!

Even after the boys end up in big trouble – get shot at, kidnapped, revealed to their new police friend as phonies, and somehow make it out alive – the movie barely treats them like they’ve learned anything at all. Sure, Ryan decides to go to the police academy and get a real, legit badge this time, but the ending scene of the movie pointlessly shows him still driving on sidewalks, abusing his power and being a jerk, all for a complete non-joke. So much for “growing up.”

To me, it looks more like he’s getting away with murder.

Justin learns to stand up for himself and be a man. He gets his game put into production and takes charge at his office. He also apologizes to his love interest, and is taken back so quickly that it made my stomach churn.


I could understand her willing to slowly forgive him and have them start over as friends, completely honestly, but no. She takes him back, both rewarding his lying ways and becoming his end of the movie prize.


And of course, neither of them go to jail. Why? Because they backed up real cop guy in the final showdown.

I’d have liked it better if after the guy told them to leave (and told them badges and uniforms are something they have to earn! Right on!), they took off their fake uniforms and backed him up anyway. A sort of civilian justice coming to help out the force. Nope! By refusing to drop their uniforms (their act, if you think of it metaphorically), even in the midst of great danger to all of these people, they dishonor the uniforms they did not earn even more.

The movie tries to make it seem like they grew and learned, but it was barely there. They sacrificed the message for bad, unfunny jokes that actually detracted from the characters. It was such colossal fail that, even though I know I’m giving this film more thought and credit than it probably deserves, I’m just continually baffled by its confused, mis-matched ambitions and the sheer effort of its laziness.

It’s not like Identity Thief, and I didn’t hate it as much as that film. I’m not quite sure how angry I should be, because I’m too busy wondering what the hell I just watched.

Final Thoughts

As I write this, Let’s Be Cops has an 18% score on  Rotten Tomatoes, and it has made over $30,000,000 at the box offices, easily making up for its budget of $17,000,000. What If has a 70% score and a box office of over $2,000,000 (with a budget I couldn’t find record of). To be fair, Rotten Tomatoes is not the best or even the final word on a film’s standing in the critical or general audience communities.

Let’s Be Cops is a mess, which might actually elevate it a bit above your typical “low-hanging fruit” comedy flick. It clearly had some ambitions and good intentions, but came up with a botched delivery, revealing little understanding of what it wanted to say. What If is more emotionally intelligent and complex, but with the seemingly lower ambitions of trying to tell “just another love story.” Obviously, a lot of people went to go see both movies, whether they ultimately did or didn’t like them. But Let’s Be Cops has garnered a strong response (in box office and general bile from critics).

That’s why I ponder: what does it say about our current cultural climate, that we keep getting and going to movies like this, despite overwhelmingly negative critical bashing?

My only conclusion is that The Hangover style of humor, however well it’s executed, is incredibly easy to duplicate. It’s probably not going away any time soon.

*All images to their respective owners. None of these shots or images belong to me.